For the February issue of DNA Tribes Digest, the article reports on the genetic contribution of North African populations using autosomal STR and autosomal SNP analyses. The study tested 6 North African populations in which all the populations tested showed admixture with their neighboring populations; due to recent, and ancient migrations. While the study remains very simple in nature the results revealed what has been shown about the populations in North Africa in other various studies. In this particular study the North Africans tested had a 20% average of admixture from Sub-Saharan Africa (13.3% west African, 8.5% east African) based on SNP testing.
“Results for both autosomal SNP and autosomal STR markers indicated North African genetic links with populations of the Middle East, Europe, and Sub-Saharan Africa (summarized in Table 3). Differences between results (SNP and STR) express the separate reference datasets available for each type of marker. At present, STR data incorporate a larger global database of populations, which allows for a more detailed analysis of regional admixture components. However, results for both types of marker identified similar geographical links between North Africa and neighboring world regions. In both cases, results identified a primary Middle Eastern component and a secondary European and Sub-Saharan African components. These genetic links might express North Africa’s periodic links with Arab and Phoenician cultures attested in historical sources, as well as more ancient contacts attested in the archaeological record.”
The study can be found at the following link.
PLoS ONE 7(1): e29687. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029687
Visualization of the genetic distances in the MDS plots illustrates a strong geographical relationship between the African populations. Within the mega cluster of African populations, there is a geographical distribution of the populations. Groups from the Grain Coast generally fall together, as do groups from the Bight of Benin. One African American population, those from South Carolina, cluster with the African populations. Notably, the South Carolina population falls nearest to the Grain Coast populations. Ethnohistorical records indicate a relationship between African Americans within this region of the United States and West Africans from Senegal, Gambia, and Sierra Leone. Based on such records it has been suggested that many African Americans within South Carolina originate from the Grain Coast region of West Africa. Furthermore, Africans from this region were sought-after and imported to the Americas for their knowledge of rice cultivation , , . The current study is the first to test this hypothesis using genetic data. The other African derived groups from the Americas form a separate cluster and are closest to one outlying African group from the Bight of Biafra. Given that Caribbean slave census records collected in the 19th century indicate that many individuals were from the Bight of Biafra, this result appears consistent with historical data
The earliest remains of ‘Negroids’ are found in Sudan on the Egyptian Sudanese border at Jebel Sahaba and Tushka. Tushka dates back to 14, 500 B.P.[plus or minus 490 years] and Sahaba is datd back to 13,700 B.P.8plus or minus 300 years]. Both are associated with Qadan blade industry.
Terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene populations of Northern Africa
Colin P. Groves and Alan Thorne.
This brings enlightenment to the fact that the people whom which we label as “negroids,” did not originate in sub-Saharan Africa. This also destroys those who apply geo-political terms to designate phenotype. Negroids have populated North, South, East and Western Africa since their creation.
When studying the history of Kemetic (Egyptian) civilization, many proponents are quick to assassinate the origin’s of Egyptian civilization. For they consciously believe that what grew along the nile could have never been an indigenous element. It must be stated preciously that what is known as “Egyptian Civilization” began in the south. Its also note worthy to point out that the Egyptians thought of the South as being the North, due to the flow of the Nile river. All importance of Egyptian civilization we learn from the South. Cairo and the cities which we consider in the current “north” were not of great importance in Ancient Egyptian civilization.
It’s best to note that current day west Africans have not always been situated in the location of western African. Hypothetically, west Africans’ descended from a Nilotic tribe in central and northern Africa; somewhere around Chad, and moved west as the wetlands of western Africa dried out. Much information about the first inhabitants of west Africa is known, however, what is known is the fact that small elements of cultures, and civilizations existed in the area as migrations increased, and populations increased. One of the first known civilizations of western African is known as “Nok civilization” or “Nok culture”. The culture of Nok appears to have been establish around 1000bc. The study below gives much information into the early west African. After Nok, other civilizations and empires erected, such as Ghana, Mali ect.
This video showcases how an enslaved woman would use a week’s ration of fatty pork meat to create Southern style cooking, by Jim Surkamp. Also note that some say the way okra came to be was that the female slaves hid the seeds in their hair and head wraps on their voyage from Africa to the Americas.